Types of Claims
of Fact. (existence of something/definition or classification/facts -- inferences about past present or future)
Types of factual claims
- Factual / historical
- Relational - causal connections
- sufficient and appropriate grounds
- reliable authority
- recent data
- accurate, typical data
- clearly defined terms -no loaded language
- a clear distinction between fact and inference.
- Claims of Value (taste & morals / good-bad) [make value
judgments/ resolve conflict between values/ quasi policy (rightness of it; relative merit)]
- Establishing standards of evaluation (i.e. a warrant that defines what
constitutes instances of the relevant value)
- note the priority of the value in this instance.
- Establish the advantage (practical or moral) of your standards.
- Use examples to clarify abstract values
- Use credible authorities for support.
- Claims of Policy
(action / should or ought) - usually involves sub-claims of fact and value
- Making proposed action clear
- need (justification)
- plan, (must be workable)
- benefit (advantages)
- consider opposition / counter arguments