Dr. Lee McGaan  

  Office:  WH 308  (ph. 309-457-2155);  email
  Home:  418 North Sunny Lane (ph. 309-734-5431)

Spring 2014 Office Hours:   MWF:  9-10am & 2-3pm  & by apt.  |  copyright (c) by Lee McGaan, 2006-2014

last updated 9/2/2008

Types of Claims

  1. Claims of Fact. (existence of something/definition or classification/facts -- inferences about past present or future)
  2. Types of factual claims (generally "objective")

    1. Factual / historical
    2. Relational - causal connections
    3. Predictive

    proof requires:

    1. sufficient and appropriate grounds
      1. reliable authority
      2. recent data
      3. accurate, typical data
      4. clearly defined terms -no loaded language
    2. a clear distinction between fact and inference.
  3. Claims of Value (taste & morals / good-bad) [make value judgments/ resolve conflict between values/ quasi policy (rightness of it; relative merit)]
  4. proof requires:

    1. Establishing standards of evaluation (i.e. a warrant that defines what constitutes instances of the relevant value)
    2. note the priority of the value in this instance.
    3. Establish the advantage (practical or moral) of your standards.
    4. Use examples to clarify abstract values
    5. Use credible authorities for support.
  5. Claims of Policy (action / should or ought) - usually involves sub-claims of fact and value
  6. proof requires:

    1. Making proposed action clear
    2. need (justification)
    3. plan, (must be workable)
    4. benefit (advantages)
    5. consider opposition / counter arguments