assertions so the audience will understand the concepts and conclusions
you are presenting.
Examples: Concrete instances. Visual is better. Make sure the audience understands what the
example is illustrating (3rd step)
(authority): direct quotations or
paraphrases – using someone else’s knowledge/information and, thus, their
credibility. Requires acknowledgement (oral citation).
Surveys: compilations of many people’s views, public
opinion, quantitative. Be sure we
understand what group the survey represents and who is the source of the survey
Definition: clarification of unfamiliar terms and
concepts [ by example, by synonym, by
Analogy: illustrating a concept by relating the
unfamiliar to the familiar. Be sure the
audience understands the points of similarity
Statistics: quantitative information. Good for establishing significance. Use round numbers if possible. “Humanize” large abstract numbers by linking
them to something familiar.
They are visual, personal and chronological. Highly concrete and memorable.
Good for illustration; weak for proof.
(description/detail): describing an
idea or concept in your own words. Most
effective when highly visual (use lots of adjectives). Often overused.
– getting the audience to accept your ideas,
believe you, be persuaded. There are
three traditional types of proof:
– using emotions to get support
-- using credibility to get
support (either your own credibility or that of your sources)
– using logic and evidence (support material) to prove you are correct and
Tips on Using Audio/Visual Aids
with your visual aid if at all possible to avoid surprise malfunctions.
up the aid in advance if possible to avoid distracting set up activity at
the start of your speech.
to the audience, not to the visual aid.
reveal the visual aid until the time you intend to discuss it. Don’t use a visual aid if you don’t
intend to discuss it.
visibility for your audience. Is
the V.A. large enough to be seen at the back of the room? Have you used low contrast colors that
can’t be easily seen? Have you place the V.A. in a location where the
view is not blocked (by you, the podium, etc.)?
the visual aid simple (complex charts and graphs distract usually) and
relevant to the point you are making.