last updated 8/14/2014
A. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) (AP 3 & 4 )
1.The Two Routes to Persuasion - Persuasion depends on receiver motivation to think/care, that is, personal relevance of the issue and ability to think about the persuasive topic.
route - receivers have low attention, little processing, less persistent
effects - [i.e. little elaboration]
effects - [i.e. little elaboration]
b. Central route
- receivers consider the merits [much elaboration]. This is the
same as the Rational Model below .
The greater the individual's motivation and ability
to "elaborate" arguments, the more the central route will be used.
The greater the individual's motivation and ability to "elaborate" arguments, the more the central route will be used.
Persuasion is thinking through the issue and figuring out what makes sense
for you, the audience member - Aristotle/traditional rhetoric
centers on this
(AP 3 & 4) .
This model is, essentially, synonymous with the CENTRAL
This model is, essentially, synonymous with the CENTRAL ROUTE.(Some background can be found at "The Rational Model of Persuasion" web page.)
B + V &/or M = attitude - - - > behavior
( This model assumes: )
a. credible sources for beliefs
b. incentive to act
c. reflectivity on the part of the receiver
A. Hovland's Learning Theory ( 4 steps) (AP ch.2 p. 27)
4 steps) (AP ch.2 p. 27)
B. McGuire’s - 2 Stage Theory
1. reception stage -
2. yielding stage -
C. Identity Emotive Model (
( 4 steps)
A. Balance theory - Heider
Valance of relationships
(positive or negative) between Source, Cognition, & Receiver can cause change.
can cause change.
C ------ R
a. imbalance is unpleasant
b. we're "driven" to reduce imbalance in some ways
c. Methods of coping with imbalance
4. Strengths of the model
5. Weakness of the model
When a source favors a concept favorability of source and concept move toward each other on the -3 to +3 persuasion continuum.
This is one of the most researched persuasion theories. Festinger took Osgood's theory and concluded that the receiver's view of the source is just one more kind of "cognition."
1. Cognitions can have three relationships
-- and dissonance causes tension ---> pressure for change.
Methods of coping with imbalance by receivers
a. seek social support or evidence for our preferred opinion
b. misperceive source's position
c. compartmentalize the difference
d. attempt to change the source's view
3. Case 1 -- Decisions (e.g. choice of car)
4. Case 2 - Involuntary exposure to counter information -- dissonance is high if:
5. Case 3 - Social support (Confronting a source who disagrees with you) Dissonance is high if:
the person is highly liked and
the issue is important .
c. note sleeper and boomerang effects
6. Case 4 -- Forced compliance - offer rewards for doing something disliked (or punishments)
a. when reward is low; persuasion is high if act is done
b. when reward is high; persuasion is high if act is NOT done
c. Note the effect of rhetorical overkill
self persuasion again is at work here
e. if source is disliked but you go along, higher persuasion
A. Social Judgment Theory - assimilation & contrast
1. When persuasive effort falls within the
latitude of acceptance, change occurs (like congruity) -- assimilation
2. When persuasive effort falls in the latitude of rejection, a contrast effect occurs - boomerang
3. size of latitudes is influenced by centrality of belief & attitude.
B. Attribution Theory - how we attribute motives, actions, affects our
interpretations and, thus, persuades . Effects --
. Effects --
A. behavior is the result of attitude toward object AND
B. attitude toward behavior
C. and behavior involves belief/attitude complexes
1. Will the behavior accomplish what I want,
2. Will I risk something,
3. Are there constraints on my actions,
4. Do I have the knowledge of how to act,
5. Are there competing values,
6. Have I made public commitments that influence my action,
7. inertia, etc.