CATA 335                                          Practice Exercises 11                               McGaan



In the following arguments you must identify or infer and write out the claim, grounds and warrant.  Label the warrent by type (i.e. analogy, cause, definition, etc.).  Then identify or invent an appropriate backing, qualifier, and reservation.  


1.  [gr.] Given the evidence presented in the AAUW Report on Gender and Schools, it is clear that [cl.] public schools educate female students less well than males.

 w. AAUW report is a valid source of information - authority

b.  AAUW researchers have advanced degrees in research methods

q. probably

r. unless the data in the report is not representative of public schools generally. 


2.  The fact that [gr.] a far higher percentage of males than females become school dropouts shows that the [cl.] AAUW report (mentioned above) is simply wrong.

 w.  the dropout rate is the best measure of effectiveness of educational outcomes - definition/sign

b.  according to the Dept. of Education

q. likely

r. unless dropouts are caused by disciplinary rather than educational reasons 


3.  [gr.] Empirical research has demonstrated that K-12 teachers interact more often with male than female students.  This shows that [cl.] males are the beneficiaries of favorable treatment by the schools.

 w. interaction rates are a sign of favorable treatment

b.  the typical person interacts more with those he/she likes than those he/she doesn't

q. possibily

r. unless the interaction is about disciplinary problems 


4.  [gr.] Surveys showing dramatic declines in self-esteem among teenage girls [cl.] prove the schools are failing female students.

 w. levels of self-esteem are determined by schools - cause

b. research studies have shown school influences are the most important determinant of S.E.

q. probably

r. unless peer influence is the real cause of self-esteem


5.      [cl.] Plans to create gender segregated classes for grades 6 through 12 should not be adopted.  [gr.] The Areal world@ is not segregated.

 w. schools should mirror the real world - policy/definition

b.  according to leading educational researchers

q. almost certainly

r. unless gender related violence is out of control. 



Last updated 9/27/2005