CATA 335 - McGaan
Practice Exercises 9
In the following arguments you must identify or infer and write out the claim, grounds and warrant. Label the warrent by type (i.e. analogy, cause, definition, etc.). Then identify or invent an appropriate backing, qualifier, and reservation.
1. If [gr.] we can reduce the amount of cocaine which enters the country illegally each month, [cl.] the number of cocaine related deaths should decrease [q.] somewhat.
w. If you reduce/eliminate the cause, you will reduce/eliminate the effect -- (cause)
b. basic principle of causation / definition of causation / logic textbook
r. unless there is already a large reserve supply of cocaine available
2. [gr.] Hillary Clinton=s economic plan will reduce financial burdens on families and increase economic growth while allowing us to strengthen social security. That=s why [cl.] support her plan. Q. most definitely
w. If a plan will provide a good outcome, support it!! (policy)
b. Basic principle of policy analysis, common sense, McGaan says so.
r. unless there are other unintended consequences that cause more harm than good.
3. When [gr.] a candidate starts using lots of negative campaign ads, it usually means [cl.] he=s well behind in the polls. Q. probably
w. negative campaigning is a sign of desperation. (sign)
b. researchers have shown this has been the case in many past elections
r. unless, the candidate is responding to negative ads from her opponent.
4. [w.] The percentage of graduates who obtain a job in their field within six months of receiving their B.A. degree is a good measure of the quality of a college. (sign or definition) Therefore, [cl.] Monmouth is a very good college. Q. most likely
gr. Monmouth has a high percent of graduates who obtain a job in their field within six months of receiving their B.A.
b. US News uses this criteria to judge colleges and they’re experts
r. unless the new graduates are often fired quickly because of lack of ability.
5. [gr.] Both Joe Namath and Jim McMahon predicted their teams would win the Super Bowl and they did. Thus, [cl.] it's smart to bet on a team whose quarterback predicts a victory. Q usually
w. These two cases are representative of the typical Superbowl situation. (induction)
b. The two teams and these quarterbacks can be shown to be quite similar to most Superbowl contenders in terms of talent, personality, experience, etc.
r. unless it turns out that a number of other
quarterbacks have predicted victory and lost .
last updated 9/15/2005