Dr. Lee McGaan  

  Office:  WH 308  (ph. 309-457-2155);  email
  Home:  418 North Sunny Lane (ph. 309-734-5431, cell 309-333-5447)

Fall 2016 Office Hours:   MWF:  9:30 - 10am, 11am - Noon & 1 -2pm TTh:  2-3pm & by apt.  |  copyright (c) by Lee McGaan, 2006-2016

last updated 9/8/2008



Authority: "There is good reason (person, text) to believe that the source of the claim/grounds should be believed."

      Example: AThe Joint Chiefs are experts in military affairs and they should know.@

Example/induction/generalization: "This particular case(s) (in the grounds) is representative of a large group of similar cases or of a `principle'."

      Example: AStatistically, 1600 people is a sufficiently large sample to reflect the opinion of the entire country is they are randomly selected.@

Deduction: "The general principle specified in the grounds applies to the specific instance in the claim."

Example:  W.  "All men are mortal."  (along with gr. "Socrates is a man." and cl.  "Therefore, Socrates is mortal." these three statements form the categorical syllogism.)

Sign: "Those conditions specified in the grounds are 'signs' (are associated regularly with) the claim."

      Example: ALow unemployment is a sign that the economy is growing.@

Comparision/Analogy: " The two instances described in the argument are similar in all important ways, thus what is true for one must be true for the other."

      Example: AKnox and Monmouth are similar in terms of campus safety.@

Cause: "The conditions specified in the grounds are sufficient to produce the effect claimed. [This can work negatively too.]

      Example: ALack of oxygen to the brain for more than 6 minutes is enough to cause death.@

Definition/classification: "By definition we call what is specified in the grounds by the name given in the claim." "Gr. is a member of the class indicated in the claim." [This can work negatively too.]

      Example: AActing courageously in the face of fear is the definition of heroism@

Value: "The circumstances represented in the grounds are reflective of good/bad or right/wrong as indicated in the conclusion."

      Example: ACheating is wrong!@

Policy:  "The 'reasons' presented in the grounds are sufficient to prove that the action described in the claim should be taken."

Example: "If there are significant, inherent problems which can be solved by a workable plan with advantages outweighing disadvantages, it should be implemented."

Residues:  The grounds eliminate or prohibit all possibilities except one.

Example:  No technology exists to permit travel across the vast distances between stars.  Therefore, interstellar space travel cannot be done.

Dilemma:  Either - or choices.

Example:  If you're not part of the solution, you're part of the problem

Consistency expectation warrant:

Example: "People's actions are (should be) consistent with attitudes, values, preferences, self-interest"