= a proposition/claim (with reasons). "What's your argument?
B. Argument2 = process, "We're
having an argument"
Clues to what is an
argument include words such as: "so," "because," "therefore."
Argumentation is not a
Traditional view of
rational appeals, logic
Social view of argument1&2: reason
giving / mutual meaning creation / dispute situations
If argumentation is
"giving reasons" for assertions (micro-structure), What
requires reasons? Do
the examples below normally require reasons?
"I love you."
(an emotional expression)
take your seats (bus driver)." (a command)
giving you a C- on this assignment (an argument if
is a dispute but not if it is information giving)
"You should pay
the cost of repairs to my car." (probably an argument
requiring reasons why you should pay)
"It's 85 degrees
in this classroom." (a simple statement of fact)
(We use what "everyone" (involved) has agreed upon as
support (grounds) to
move to a new claim, thus creating "chains of reasoning."
III. Foundation Concepts in Argumentation
argument1 is a (set of) statement(s) in which
a claim is made, support (REASONS) is offered,
and there is an attempt to influence someone in the context of
disagreement." p. 6 -- "A claim is an expressed conclusion
(assertion) the arguer (rhetor) wants accepted." p. 7 [ T.A.
Hollihan & K.T. Baaske. Arguments and Arguing. Waveland
What counts as a reason?
[support? i.e., evidence, grounds]
sufficiency (to the
clarity (to the
credibility to the
principles/criteria (for the audience or within "the
silence of the
What is not an
What is not an argument in one context
may be in another!!
Evaluation of argument and rigor vary by
What are the goals of argument?
Truth Testing function
-- the Dialectic
-- the logical perspective
Testing claims and
ideas (error checking) -- the
(& revealing hidden assumptions)
Advocacy Function - the
of a claim (truth and action)
views be considered
[ Tension between 1
& 2 is always a problem ]
IV. CONTEXTS for
A. Cultural Contexts -
- Shared systems of meanings: symbols,
myths, rituals, history, ideology.
- Sets interpretations, norms, values
- All academic enterprise is
argumentation. Thus, disciplines are argumentation
- So are the professions (law,
politics, science, etc.)
- Fields are defined by the traits
- having consistent patterns of
- preferred (field specific)