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Refutation and Ethos

 Priorites for Refutation  For each claim you wish to refute --

  1. present constructive counter-arguments to deny the conclusion reached by your opponent (counter facts/"better" evidence, "no harm,"  "no significance," no inherency etc.)
  2. attack relevance of the evidence used by your opponent.
  3. attack the credibility/reliability of your opponent's sources.
  4. attack the reasoning (warrant) used to connect evidence to claim or claim to case requirement.

 Keys to Refutation - Steps

  1. Identify argument (use affirmative labels if possible)
  2. State the nature of the attack
  3. Provide counter-evidence or reasoning
  4. Show impact of the refutation on opponents case



  • character
  • competency
  • composure
  • extroversion/dynamism
  • sociability

Enhancers of Ethos

  • prestige
  • appearance
  • organization and internal summaries

last updated 10/17/2008