This material has been used for many years by Professor Tom Sienkewicz in his courses at Howard University and at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. If you have any questions, you may contact him at


This analysis is based upon A Study of the "Iliad" in Translation by Frank Lowry Clark. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1927).

Book XX

I. Prologue to the Theomachy, the battle of the gods (in Book XXI). 1-74

II. The Homeric Aeneid, i.e., Achilles' contest with the Trojan Aeneas. 75-380

Note the detailed account of the royal house of Troy, 213-241

III. The Achilleidos Proteleia (or Achilles' battle for Patroclus) (continued from book XIX), 381-end

Book XXI

I. Achilles battles the River Gods (Mache Parapotamios), 1-384

A. Prologue: Achilles chases the fleeing Trojans into the Xanthus river, where their blood turns the water red, 1-33

B. The Lycaon Episode, 34-138

C. The Asteropaeus Episode, 139-202

D. Achilles' fights the river gods of Troy, 203-384

II. Theomachy (continued from XX.74), 385-525

III. Introduction to the Hektoros Anairesis ("Death of Hector"), 526-611

a) Priam, looking down from the citadel of Troy, witnesses the panic flight of his countrymen and commands that the gates be opened to receive them, xxi. 526-43

b) Apollo intervenes to save Troy by inspiring valor in Antenor's son, Agenor, 544-52

c) Agenor's soliloquy before entering the fight against Achilles, 553-70

d) Agenor fights with Achilles but is wounded and is about to be killed, 571-94

e) Apollo snatches Agenor away and covers him with thick mist; then he himself assumes the form of Agenor and entices Achilles to pursue him far from the city, till all the Trojans (except Hector) are safe with the walls, xxi. 596-611

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