This material has been used for many years by Professor Tom Sienkewicz in his courses at Howard University and at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. If you have any questions, you may contact him at


This analysis is based upon A Study of the "Iliad" in Translation by Frank Lowry Clark. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1927).

I. In an early-dawn assembly of the gods on Olympus, Zeus forbids the gods to take part in the battle on either side, 1-40

II. Zeus goes to mount Ida to view the battle, 41-52

III. The battle begins again (after the duel and truce of Book VII), 53-129

a) The weighing of fates (kerostasia) in the golden scales by Zeus, 66-77

b) The plight of Nestor and his rescue by Diomedes, 78-111

c) Diomedes and Nestor drive against Hector and kill his charioteer, 112-29

IV. Zeus intervenes to help the Trojans by casting a thunderbolt before the horses of Diomedes, 130-56

V. Diomedes, warned by Nestor, turns back; While the Trojans, led by Hector, pursue, 157-97

VI. Hera tries in vain to rouse Poseidon to help the Greeks; but he refuses, fearing the command of Zeus, 198-211

VII. Hera moves Agamemnon to exhort the Greeks, which he does, reminding them of their boasts at the feast on Lemnos, 212-44

VII. Zeus sends an omen to encourage the Greeks, 245-52

IX. Diomedes and the archer, Teucer, work havoc among the Trojans, 253-334

X. Zeus again encourages the Trojans, and the Greeks flee pursued by Hector, 335-49

XI. Hera stirs up Athena to help the Greeks and both go forth in Athena's chariot, 350-96

XII. Zeus sends Iris to turn them back, 397-437

XIII. Zeus returns to Olympus and holds a second council, in which he rebukes Hera and Athena and foretells the victorious course of Hector until he slays Patroclus and rouses Achilles, 438-88

XIV. Night council of the victorious Trojans on the plain, 489-564 (end)

a) Speech of Hector, confident of Victory on the plain, 497-541

b) The scene at night upon the plain 542-65 (end)

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