THE ILIAD: summary

 

I           1-7                   Invocation of the Muse.

8-21                 Chryses begs the return of his daughter.

22-52               Apollo punishes the Greeks with a plague.

53-129 A          Achilles calls meeting; Kalchas tells cause of plague.

130-311           Achilles and Agamemnon argue; Nestor fails to restore peace.

312-317           Purification of camp and sacrifices to Apollo.

318-347           Agamemnon takes Briseis from Achilles.

348-427           Achilles determines to abstain from battle; Thetis approves and promises revenge.

428-487           Chryseis is returned with gifts.

488-533           Zeus gives in to Thetis, promises Trojan victories until Achilles is satisfied.

534-567           Hera, angered at this, argues with Zeus over dinner.

568-611           Saddened by this argument, the gods are restored to good spirits by the antics of Hephaistos.

 

II          1-40                 Zeus deceptively sends Dream to Agamemnon promising victory.

41-100              Before dawn, Agamemnon reveals dream to chieftains, then calls a general assembly.

101-154            As a test, Agamemnon pretends Greeks are to leave Troy; they fail the test and rush to the ships.

155-210           Odysseus, warned by Athene, forces Greeks back to camp.

211-277           The Thersites incident.  (comic relief?)

278-393            Odysseus and Nestor address Greeks; Agamemnon fills them with ardor for battle.

394-484           The chieftains dine with Agamemnon; the men dine & sacrifice, chieftains arrange them into ranks.

485-770           The Catalogue of the Greeks.

771-785           Achilles broods by the sea and by his ships.

786-877           The Catalogue of the Trojans.

 

III             1-37             Paris challenges bravest Greek to combat, flees when Menelaos takes up challenge.

38-110              Chided by Hektor, Paris returns; Menelaos demands an oath in the presence of Priam.

111-244            Armies lay down their arms, sacrifices are prepared; meanwhile Helen from the walls point out Greek heroes to Priam and Trojan elders.

245-301           Summoned, Priam comes to the field and supervises oath: the winner will get Helen and her wealth.

302-382            Paris and Menelaos fight after Priam departs; Aphrodite rescues the wounded Paris, desposits him in bedchamber.

383-448           Aphrodite brings Helen to Paris, forcing her to receive him.

449-461            Menelaos vainly seeks Paris; Agamemnon demands the rewards of the victory according to the oath sworn.

 

IV        1-49                 Hera extorts from zeus promise of Troyís defeat.

50-104            Athenz persuades Pandaros to break the truce.

104-219           Machaon heals the non-fatal wound of Menelaos.

220-421           Trojans rearm and return to fight; Agamemnon praises the alacrity of some Greeks, chides the slowness of others.

422-544           Battle is joined; Area ands Apollo aid Trojans, Athens aids Greeks; there is bloodshed on both sides.

 

V             1-94             Diomedes, under the protection of Athens who tricks Area away from the battle,   rages against the Trojans.

95-166             He is wounded by Pandaros but fights on.

167-296           He kills Pandaros who was fighting from Aeneasí chariot.

297-310           He wounds Aeneas who protects the body of his friend, Pandaros.

311-351           He wounds Aphrodite as she tries to rescue the wounded Aeneas.

352-431           Aphrodite, rescued by Iris, is conducted to Olympus in Aresí chariot, where she is comforted by her mother Dione, to the amusement of other gods.

432-460           Aeneas, deserted by his mother, is saved from Diomedesí wrath by Apollo who places him on the citadel and then recalls Ares to battle.

461-518           Ares stirs up the Trojanís faltering spirits; Aeness returns to their aid.

519-710                       The Greeks fight on; many are killed on both sides; the Greeks fall back slightly.

711-777           Hera and Athens come from Olympus to aid the Greek.

778-863           The Greecks are stirred up by Heraís voice; Diomedes, aided by Athens, wounds Ares himself.

864-909           Ares retreats to Olympus and is healed; the goddnessed follow.

 

VI            1-101           Trojans incline towards flight;Helanos, a Trojan prophet and a brother of Hektor, urges Hektor to call for a public supplication of Athena by the women of Troy.

102-236           Hektor goes to the city.

The Episodes of Claukos and Diomedes.

237-311           Hekuba and the women, at Hektorís urging, supplicate Athens at her temple in Troy.

312-368           Hektor chides Paris for staying at home; leads him back.

369-502           Farewell of Hektor to his wife, Andromache, and his baby son, Astayanax.

503-529           Paris soon follows his brother Hektor back to battle.

 

VII       1-16                 Hektor and Paris press on against the Greeks.

17-90               Hektor challenges the bravest Greek to single combat.

90-122             Agamenon discourages Menelaos from volunteering.

123-205           Prodded by Nestor, nine Greek heroes volunteer; the lot falls to Aias, son of  Telamon.

206-312           Hektor ans Aias fight to a draw and at nightfall exchange gifts and withdraw.

313-364           At a meeting, Nestor proposes a truce for burial of the dead and to fortify the ships and camp. At a Trojan meeting, Antenor proposes the surrender of Helen and her wealth for the sake of peace; Paris refuses to give up Helen, but he is willing to give back her wealth.

365-420          Priam orders this word be brought to the Greeks; a truce is declared to bury the dead.

421-464          The burials take place; the Greeks protect their ships with a wall and a ditch; Poseidon is angered at this.

465-482           Nightfall with thunder follows the dinner at the end of the day.

 

VIII          1-52            At a gathering, Zeus forbids the gods to take sides in the battle, he rides his chariot to Mt. Ida.

52-77               In the morning he watches from Ida,weighs the fates of the two sides; the fates go against the Greeks and he sends thunderbolt portending disaster for them.

78-250            Greeks are driven back to their wall, while Hera vainly entreats the aid of Poseidon; Agamemnon revives their spirits.

251-334          The Greeks rally and counterattack; Teucer wounds many Trojans, is wounded in turn by Hektor.

335-437          The Greeks fall back again;Hera and Athena try to help but are prevented by Zeus who has spotted them at it.

438-484          Zeus berates the two goddesses on Olympus and promises worse disaster on the morrow.

485-565          The fighting ends with the nightfall; the victorious Trojans camp on the battlefield, lighting many fires to prevent an attack or escape by the Greeks.

 

IX        1-28                 Agamemnon proposes flight to the chieftans.

29-78               Diomedes and Nestor dissuade him.

79-113             Dinner is held in Agamemnonís tent; they discuss what can be done to satisfy Achilles.

114-161          Agamamnon says that, if Achilles renounces publicly his warth, he will return to Achilles Briseis and send gifts as well. 

162-184           Phoenix, Ajax of Telemon, Osysseus are sent as envoys. 

185-668           The Embassy to the Achilles

--Achilles greets the envoys warmly.

--He rejects their pleas and the promises of Agamemnon.

--He asks Phoenix to stay as his guest for the night.

669-713           Ajax and Odysseus report the failure of the mission; Diomede encourages the afflicted and faltering chieftains.

 

X             1-193           Agamemnon, sleepless, with Menelaos, wakens Nestor and other chieftans for a night conference.

194-271           Yhey decide to send Diomedes and Odysseus as spies to the Trojan camp.

272-298           A good omen is discovered.

299-381           The spies, crossing nomanís land, come upon Dolon, a Trojan on his way to spy on the Greeks.

382-464           Dolon, frightened, tells all, especially about the ally Rhesus; Dolon is slained.

465-503           The two spies come upon the encampment of Rhesus, slay his men in their sleep and drove off the horses.

504-579           They make good escape back to the Greeck camp.

 

XI        1-66                 Agamemnon, in splendor, leads his troops to battle; Hektor and the Trojan leaders do the likewise.

67-162             The Trojans, frightened by Agamemnon, fall back to the walls of Troy.

163-283           Hektor falls back to the walls of the city; commanded by Zeus he beats back onset of Agamemnon until Agamemnon, wounded, retires.

284-309           Hektor returns to the battle and restores the Trojan spirit.

310-40            Diomedes, Odysseus and Ajax restore Greek spirits; Diomedes wounded by Paris retires.

401-488           Odysseus wounded by Sokus, is rescued by Menelaos and Ajax.

489-596           Machaon and Eyrupylus are wounded by Paris.

597-617           Achilles seeing Machaon on Nestorís chariot, sends Patroklos to learn what has happened.

618-803           Patroklos recognizes Machaon; learns from Nestor the bad news of battle, is asked by him to try to get Achilles back into battle or to wear Achillesí armour himself and fight.

804-848           On the way back, Patrolos runs into Eurypylus who has been wounded, brings him to his tent and tends his wound.

 

XII           1-59            The Greeks withdraw behind their walls and watch the onslaught of the Trojans.

60-107            Advised by Poulydamas, the Trojans dismount from their chariots and advance in five groups.

108-194          Asius attempts an assault on one of the gates from his chariot and is replused with losses to his men.

195-250          An unlucky omen interpreted by Poulydamas does not deter Hektor from continuing the assault.

251-289          The Greeks, especially the two Aiases, defend the camp valiantly.

290-377          Sarpedon and Galukos, Trojan heroes, attack and are repulsed by Ajax and Teucer.

378-399          Epicles, friend of Sarpedon, is wounded by Ajax; Glaukos by Teucer; finally part of the wall is torn out by Sarpedon.

400-471          The Greeks hold off the Lykians, Trojan allies, from breaking in; Hektor breaks down the gate with the boulder and opens the way to the ships of the Greeks for his men.

 

XIII           1-42           With the wall broken here and there, Trojans kill Greeks; Poseidon in pity and without Zeusí knowledge aids the Greeks in defending their ships.

42-124             In the form of a human, Poseidon encourages the two Aiases and other chieftans.

125-205           Therefore, the Aiases and others keep Hektor from destroying the ships.

205-329           Idomeneus, driven to arm himself by Poseidon, aids those Greeks on the left flank who need help.

330-362           Fierce battle ensues; Zeus helps the Trojans, Poseidon the Greeks;        Idomeneus excels among the Greek heroes.

363-672           He kills Othryoneus, Asius, Alkanthous; then with Meriones , Antilochos, and Menlaos he valiantly attacks Aeneas, Deiphobus, Helenus, and Paris. 

673-808           The Aiases and others so press upon Hektor that the Trojans begin to fall back; but Hektor, advised by Poulydamas, makes a counterattack.

809-837           Ajax makes a fresh attack; great fighting continues on both sides.

 

XIV          1-26            Aroused by the clamor, Nestor leaves his tent where Machaon is recuperating to see what has happened.

27-81               He meets Agamemnon, Odysseus, and Diomedes returning wounded fron the battle; Agamemnon contemplates flight for the Greeks.

82-152             Odysseus disgrees; Diomedes persuades all to return to the fray where they may help their men by their presence; as he goes along, Agamemnon is comforted by Poseidon.

153-351           Hera, to aid the Greeks, prepares to beguile Zeus with her womanly charm, enlisting the innocent help of Aphrodite; Sleep is summoned from Lemnos to cast a spell on Zeus.

352-401           While Zeus sleeps, Poseidon openly aids the Greeks.

402-439           Hektor, wounded by Ajax, is carried off and cared for by his companions.

440-522           The Greeks turn the Trojans back from the ships; Ajax, son of Oileus, excels among the Greeks.

 

XV       1-11                 Zeus awakens to see Poseidon helping the Greeks.

12-77               He commands Hera to call Iris and Apollo from Olympus; he will use them to help the Trojans, at the same time he predicts the ultimate fall of Troy.

78-142             Ares hears from Hera of the death of his son Ascalaphos and he burns for vengence; Athena calms him.

143-219           Apollo and Iris come to Zeus and Poseidon is dissuaded from further battle.

220-280           Apollo heals Hektor, returns him to battle, and restore the Trojans flagging fortunes.

281-389           Hektor attacks the bravest Greeks, kills some, put others to flight; Apollo goes before him with the aegis frightening the Greeks; the wall is torn down and the Trojans have access to the ships.

390-404           Patroklos returns to Achilles from Eurypylus to beg him to aid the Greeks.

405-590           The Greeks fight bitterly by the ships; many fall on both sides.

591-746           The Greeks fall back among the ships; Ajax tries to defend the ships from the fires Hektor is starting to spread among them.

 

XVI         1-100            Achilles allows Patroklos to wear his armor and drive the Greeks from the ships, warning him to go no further.

101-123           Ajax is unable to fight off the fires.

124-256           Achilles calls Patroklos to arm, lines up his men, addresses them, and prays for Patroklos in private.

257-305           Thinking Patroklos to be Achilles, the Trojans fall back, the ships are freed from seige, the fires are extinguished.

306-418           Patroklos drives the Trojans back over the walls.

419-507           Patroklos kills Sarpedon, a son of Zeus and a Trojan ally. 

508-683           A struggle ensues over his body; it is snatched away.

684-711           Patroklos chases Trojans to city, scales the wall, but is repulsed by the god himself.

712-782           He faces up to Hektor, he kills Hektorís charioteer and makes off with the body.

783-867           He kills more Trojans until, stunned by Apollo, he is wounded by           Euphorbus and finished off by Hektor.

 

XVII    1-60                 Menelaos killls Euphorbus as he makes off with Patroklosí armor.

61-139             Menelaos summons Ajax to help defend Patroklosí body, which would be captured by the Trojans without his help.

140-261           Hektor yields to Ajax; then wearing Achillesí captured armor he returns to capture Patroklosí body, calling his bravest men to the task; the best of the Greeks, called by Menelaos, rush to his aid.

262-425           A bitter fight takes place over the body, Menelaos vs. Hektor, and the followers of each.

426-483           Achillesí horses, weeping for dead Patroklos, are strengthened by Zeus and return pulling Achillesí chariot and his charioteer Automedon.

484-596           Hektor, Aeneas, and others attack the chariot to capture the fine horses; the Greeks withstand this attack and continue to defend Patroklosí body; Athena strengthens Menelaos; Apollo aids Hektor with Zeusí approval.

597-701           The Greek line falters; Ajax wavers; Menelaos dispatches Antilochos to Achilles with the tragic news of his friendís death.

702-761           Menelaos and Meriones begin to carry off Patrolaosís body while others of the Greeks fend off the Trojanís attack.

 

XVIII   1-34                 Hearing the bad news of Patroklos, Achillles weeps.

35-137             Thetis comes from the sea to console him; she bids him put off his revenge for one day while she has Hepahaistos fashion new armor for him.

138-231           Thetis leaves for Olympus; the battle for Patroklos goes on; the Trojans are on the point of prevailing when Achilles appears in person on the ramparts of the Greek encampment and with a shriek terrifies the Trojans and put them to flight.

232-242           The Greeks grings the body of Patroklos to Achillesí camp.

243-314           The Trojans hold the tumultuous meeting; Poulydamas urges them to  remain in the city and avoid the wrathful revenge of Achilles; Hektor and others disagree with this plan.

315-355           The Trojans spend a vigilant night; the Greeks mourn for Paroklos, care for his body and place it on a bier.

356-427           At Olympus, where Zeus had been chiding Hera for stirring up Achilles, Thetis is warmly received at the house of Hephaistos, the fire god.

428-617           Hephaistos accends to her wishes and fashions new arms for Achilles.

 

XIX           1-39           Thetis brings Achilles his new armor at dawn, urges him to join battle; she magically embalms the body of Patroklos to preserve it.

40-73               Achilles calls a meeting at which he renounces his warth.

74-153             Agamemnon confesses in turn his error and offers gifts through Odysseus; Achilles, intent on revenge, ignores them.

154-275           But he yields to Odysseus,waits while the troops breakfast, publically accepts the gifts and receives back Briseis, whom Agamemnon solemnly swears he has not touched.

276-339           The gifts are brought into his tent where the women weep for Patroklos; Achilles again weeps and refuses food.

340-424           He is restored to strength by Athena, puts on his new armor, ascends his chariot with automedon; one of his horses predicts the future and he sets out for battle.

 

XX            1-30            At a meeting on Olympus, Zeus gives the gods permission to aid whom they will, so that th wrath of Achilles may not accomplish the premature downfall of Troy.

31-74                The gods proceed to battle: Hera, Athena, Poseidon, Hermes, Hephaistos, too aid the Greeks; Ares, Apollo, Diana, Leto, Xanthos, Aphrodite, to aid the Trojans; the earth trembles at their arrival.

75-155              Before battle is joined, Apollo urges Aeneas on against Achilles who is pressing toward Hektor; meanwhile, the gods, on the advice of Poseidon, remain on the sidelines for the time being.

156-352            Achilles and Aeneas go to it; Poseidon rescues Aeneas in a cloud because of his particular destiny.

353-418            Hektor, about to attack Achilles, is recalled by Apollo; Achilles kills many Trojans, among them Polydoros, a son of Priam.

419-454            To avenge the death of his brother Polydoros, Hektor attacks Hektor; Apollo snatches him away in a cloud.

455-503           Achilles rages against the Trojans, filling the field with corpses.

 

XXI          1-33            Achilles drives some Trojans to the city, others into the river Xanthus (called also Skamandros, under the protection of the god Xanthus); he kills many in the water but saves twleve as a funeral offering for Patroklos.

34-135             He kills Lycaon, son of Priam, though he surrenders.

136-210           He kills Asteropaeus with some of his followers.

211-271           Xanthos, the river, choked with bodies, orders him to leave; Achilles refuses and the river tries to drown him.

272-384           Poseidon and Athena aid the struggling Achilles; Xanthos calls upon the river Simoeis for help; Hera sends Hephaistos against Xanthus; he burns up the river and has to be called off by Hera.

385-513           The gods pair off to fight:Ares, Aphorite--Athena; Apollo--Poseidon; Hera--Artemis; Hermes--Leto.

514-543           After this the gods and goddesses return to Olympus except Apollo who makes for Troy; Achilles rages on; Priam orders the closing of the gates.

544-611           Apollo, by a ruse, keeps achilles away from the city as the refugees enter the gates.

 

XXII         1-89           With each army withdrawn from the field, Hektor awaits Achilles before the gates, while his weeping parents, from the walls, begs him to escape while he can.

90-166            Hektor however holds fast; then, frightened by Achillesí aspect,flees; Achilles chases him around the city walls three times.

167-247          Zeus pities Hektorís plight; he weighs the fates and finds it is Hektorís doomday; Apollo abadons Hektor and Apollo chases him with a false vision of his brother Polydoros.

248-305           The heroes meet; Athena aids Achilles and tricks Hektor.

306-404          Achilles transfixes Hektor with a spear, strips his body, and disgraces the corpse, drags it by chariot to the ships.

405-515          The city bewails the death of Hektor from the walls; Andromache learns the tragic news.

 

XXIII        1-58           The Myrmidons process around the bier of Patroklos; Achilles provides them a feast, though he himself dines with Agamemnon, setting a date for the funeral.

59-107             That night Patrklos appears to Achilles in a dream, begging burial.

108-225           Next morning the body is burned with much ceremony.

226-256           The following day the ashes are collected in a urn and a mound of earth is raised over it.

257-650           Achilles declares games with prizes in Protroklosí honor; there is a chariot race: Diomedes, Antilochos, Menelaos, Merione, Eumelos, Nestor.

651-699           Epeus and Euryalos box.

700-739           Ajax and Odysseus wrestle.

740-797           Odysseus, Ajax of Olieus, Antilochos race.

798-825           Diomedes and ajax of Telemon fight with weapons.

826-849           Polypoetes throws the discus.

850-883           Meriones and Teucer contend with bow and arrow.

884-897           Agamemnon and Meriones throw the javelin.

 

XXIV        1-18           The games over, the Greeks eat and sleep; Achilles after a sleepless night, drags the body of Hektor around the tomb.

19-54                Some of the gods approve, some disapprove of the actions of Achilles  going on for so many days; Apollo complains bitterly.

55-186             Therefore: Zeus, through Thetis, command Achilles to desist, to accept a ransom and surrender the body; at his command, Iris tells Priam to offer a ransom and retrieve the body.

187-282          On the 12th night after the death of Hektor, Priam secretly prepares a ransom,  loads a chariot and enlists the aid of Idaeus, a herald.

283-330           A libation is offered; favorable omens are received; they set out.

331-467           Hermes guides them through the sleeping Greeks.

468-676           Achilles accepts the ransom, orders the preparation of the body, grants an eleven day truce for burial, feeds Priam and dismisses him.

677-776           Helped by Hermes, Priam returns Hektorís body to Troy, where the entire population comes out to greet it with lamentation; Andromache, Hecuba, and Helen mourn over the body.

777-804           The burial of Hektor.