Lefkowitz. Women in Greek Myth
Chapter 13 Misogyny
Study Questions

1. Why does Lefkowitz not believe that the principal reason for the wariness of Greek men towards women was their fear of women's sexuality? (pg. 168)

2. What assumptions about female behavior does Artistotle make in his Politics? (pg. 168)

3. What is Lefkowitz' goal in this chapter? What does she say she is setting out to show? (pg. 169)

4. What kinds of ancient sources does Lefkowitz are most helpful in showing us the attitudes of Greek men towards women with whom they had some kind of permanent relationship? Which sources does she think are less useful? Why? (pg.. 169)

5. How is the story of Pandora in Hesiod's Theogony different  from the story of Pandora in Hesiod's Works and Days? (pg. 170)

6. What characterization of women does Lefkowitz suggest is implicit in both of Hesiod's versions of Pandora? (pg. 170)

7. How does Lefkowitz suggest that Hesiod's views of women are similar to those of the poet Semonides of Amorgos? (pg. 171)

8. Why does Lefkowitz suggest that the goddess Aphrodite is so potentially harmful to  humans? (pg. 171)

9. Describe Sappho's description of the goddess Aphrodite in her poems. How does this descritiption compare to Hesiod's and Semonides' attitudes towards women? (pp. 171-172)

10. Explain how the "Homeric Hymn to Aprhodite" is, according to Lefkowitz " a powerful statement of the power of passion to alter man's judgement"? (pp. 172-173)

11. According to Lefkowitz, in what way do females cause destruction in Sophocles' Antigone and in Euripides' Hippolytus. (pg. 174)

12. What does Homer blame for Clytemnestra's misdeeds in the Odyssey? How does the Clytemnestra in Aeschylus' Agamemnon compare to the Clytemnestra in Homer? (pp. 174-175)

13. Does Lefkowitz agree with modern scholars who emphasize sexual elements and metaphors in Aeschylus' Libation Bearers? Why or why not? (pp. 175-176)

14. Does Lefkowitz agree with modern scholars who consider the Erinyes, the goddesses of vengeance in Aeschylus' Eumenides, to represent, in Freudian terms, qualities that Greek men found frightening in female anatomy? Why or why not? (pp. 176-177)

15. How do the Erinyes and Apollo disagree about the role of the female in human conception? Why does Lefkowitz believe that Apollo's view is not based upon misogyny? (pg. 177)

16. Why does Lefkowitz believe that Aeschylus' Oresteia does not represent the defeat of irrational female values in favor of rational male ones? (pp. 177-178)

17. What do celibate females, both human and divine  all have in common in Greek tragedy? How are the Erinyes, Artemis, Antigone and Electra  different from Medea? (pp. 178-179)

18. What did Greeks believe was the source of ate, i.e., the delusion that leads to destruction? Why are celibate women less likely to be affected by this ate? (pg. 179)

19. How does Lefkowitz the behavior of celibate goddesses like Demeter and Hecate? (pp. 179-180)

20. What honors and rewards did celibate women receive in Greek society in return for their chastity? (pp. 180-181)

21. How did attitudes towards celibacy change in the early Christian Church? (pp. 181-182)

22. What was the attitude of St. Paul towards women? (pg. 183-185)

23. When does Lefkowitz think an obsession with the dangers of women's physical sexuality first became part of the European consciousness? Why? Do you agree with her conclusions? (pg. 185)