Ancient Religious Reflections:
Sacred Places Past and Present
INTG305/
CLAS245

Department of Classics
Monmouth College

COURSE DOCUMENTS

NOTE:  This material will remain "in progress" throughout the semester. It will be modified as needed. Students are advised to consult this schedule periodically for changes, modifications, and additions.

Sacred Places Class Definitions
2007 / 2012 / 2014

Prof. Sienkewicz' Personal Statement of Sacred Space

Sacred Places (General):
Definition by Episcopal Diocese of Minnesota: http://www.env-steward.com/reflect/space.htm
The Code of Canon Law. See especially "Sacred Places and Times" http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/canon/c1205-1253.htm
"Sacred Space: Your Daily Prayer On-Line" http://www.jesuit.ie/where-we-work/sacred-space and http://www.sacredspace.ie/

Torah: Holy Actions are what makes Sacred Space Lovely http://www.jweekly.com/article/full/72398/torah-holy-actions-are-what-make-sacred-spaces-lovely/

Gibbs, John G. "Sacred Space in Biblical Perspective" http://www.env-steward.com/reflect/space/bible-ss.htm
Impressions of Sacred Space: http://www.env-steward.com/reflect/space/imp-ss.htm

Witcombe, Christopher L.C. E. "Sacred Places." http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/sacredplacesintro.html
This site is an excellent introduction to the topic of sacred places. It includes an introduction on sacredness and site links to major sacred places around the world, many of which are topics for this course.

"God in America: Sacred Spaces" http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/outreach/tour.html
Visiting Sacred Spaces: http://www-tc.pbs.org/godinamerica/art/VisitingSacredSpaces.pdf


Catawba College: Sacred Spaces: http://faculty.catawba.edu/cmcallis/history/spaces/spaces.htm
Beyond Belief: Religions and the Environment http://www.arcworld.org/downloads/WWF%20Beyond%20Belief.pdf

Partners for Sacred Places: http://www.sacredplaces.org

Building Your Own Sacred Space: Setting Up a Buddhist Altar http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors/Yutang%20Lin/Setting%20Up%20An%20Altar/A%20Brief%20Introduction%20to%20Setting%20up%20a%20Buddhist%20Altar.htm


Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E. "Sacred Caves." http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/caves.html
Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E. "Stones and the Sacred." http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/stones.html
Witcombe, Christopher L.C. E. "Mountains and the Sacred." http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/mountains.htm
Witcombe, Christopher L.C. E. "Trees and the Sacred." http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/trees.html
Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E. "Water and the Sacred." http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/water.html

Gray, Martin. Sacred Sites: Places of Peace and Power. http://www.sacredsites.com/. See especially the initial slide show and bibliography.
"Sacred and Magical Places: An Introduction" http://sacredsites.com/sacred_places/sacred_and_magical_places_introduction.html
"Sacred Geometry" http://sacredsites.com/sacred_places/sacred_geography.html
"Categories of Sacred Space" http://sacredsites.com/sacred_places/categories_of_sacred_spaces.html

Sacred Places (More Specific):
Swami B.G. Narasingha. "
Vastu Shastra and Sacred Architecture" http://gosai.com/writings/vastu-shastra-and-sacred-architecture

Condren, Mary D. "Sacred Spaces: What Makes Them Sacred?" (feminist theory)

Mircea Eliade and the Sacred:

Durham,  John C. “Eliade: Sacred and Profane.”

http://www.bytrentsacred.co.uk/index.php/eliade-sacred-and-profane
http://www.bytrentsacred.co.uk/index.php/eliade-sacred-and-profane/1-sacred-space
http://www.bytrentsacred.co.uk/index.php/eliade-sacred-and-profane/2-sacred-time
Cummings, Randal Lee.  “A Synopsis of Eliade's The Sacred and the Profane.” http://www.csun.edu/~rcummings/sacred.html
Kelly, Joseph F, and Sheila E. McGinn. "The Basic Ideas of Mircea Eliade's The Sacred and the Profane" http://fmmh.ycdsb.ca/teachers/fmmh_mcmanaman/pages/tok_eliade.pdf; Basic Ideas:  http://www.jcu.edu/Bible/101/Readings/Ritual/EliadeSummary.htm

Eliade Powerpoint

Sacred Places Around the World:
Sacred Destinations Travel Guide: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/
UNESCO World Heritage list: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/
Sacred Landscapes: http://www.luckymojo.com/sacredtourismlist.html

Gray, Martin. Sacred Sites: Places of Peace and Power. http://www.sacredsites.com/. See especially the initial slide show and bibliography.

Jagannatha Puri:
http://ws.ori.nic.in/jagannath/

Narasingha, Swami B. G.  "Vastu Shastra and Sacred Architecture": http://www.gosai.com/chaitanya/saranagati/html/nmj_articles/sacred_architecture/vastu-shastra.html
http://www.jagannathpuri.com/index.aspx

Stonehenge:
Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/stonehenge.html

Caesar, Ed. "What Lies Beneath," Smithsonian 45 (September 2014), pp. 30-41: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/new-light-on-stonehenge-11706891/?no-ist
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xl6PaGi270Q
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP2DlTwQuIY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZwylvOj1r0Q
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5yz0xNkMmAI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oxmxPKoSE
http://www.sacredsites.com/europe/england/stonehenge.html
http://ancient-wisdom.co.uk/englandstonehenge.htm
http://www.activemind.com/Mysterious/Topics/stonehenge/
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/england/stonehenge
http://www.stonehenge.co.uk/
http://www.britannia.com/history/h7.html
http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.876
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/wiltshire/5102130.stm
http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/stonehenge.html
http://www.britannia.com/history/pretime.html

Cordoba:
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/spain/cordoba-mezquita
http://www.infocordoba.com/spain/andalusia/cordoba/info/mosque/mosque_visitor_guide.htm (note plan)
http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/cordoba.html

http://www.cyberspain.com/ciudades-patrimonio/fotos/cormez.htm
http://www.islamicity.com/Culture/MOSQUES/Europe/cordoba.htm
https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-islam/islamic-art-early/a/the-great-mosque-of-cordoba
http://www.andalucia.com/cities/cordoba/mosque.htm
http://www.infocordoba.com/spain/andalusia/cordoba/photos/mosque_1/index.htm (photo gallery, exterior)
http://www.infocordoba.com/spain/andalusia/cordoba/photos/mosque_2/index.htm (photo gallery, interior)
http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/spain/cordoba/mezquita/mezquita.html (photo gallery)
http://islam-watch.org/AdrianMorgan/Muslim_Commandeer_Spain_Cathedral.htm (mosque and church)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6213665.stm (initial response by bishop of Cordoba)
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/dec/28/spain.catholicism (Pope Benedict XVI re Muslims in mosque)
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/apr/01/muslim-catholic-mosque-fight (Fight in mosque)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_campaign_at_C%C3%B3rdoba_Cathedral (More on the fight)
https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/3589/cordoba-cathedral-muslim-prayer
http://www.truthandgrace.com/muslimhateforspain.htm (Christian polemic on the question)
http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/5/24/cordoba-mosque-cathedral-controversy.html
http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/719 (An interesting twist: Mosque in Cordoba vs. Church in Damascus)
http://peoplesgeography.com/2010/08/16/a-cartoonists-look-at-the-911-mosque/ (Cordoba and 9-11!

El Camino de Santiago
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/spain/santiago-cathedral
http://www.santiago-compostela.net/
http://www.caminosantiagodecompostela.com/
http://www.americanpilgrims.com/camino/history.html
http://www.theway-themovie.com/camino.php
Cuelho's "Road to Santiago" (video)
"Temple of the Stars" (intro) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qU4zc0MFKMI
"Temple of the Stars" (full): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=blK3IF51B0M
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZKav766t7U
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=blK3IF51B0M

Muir Woods:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eavnXMXC4JY
National Park Service: http://www.nps.gov/muwo/
Muir Woods National Monument: http://www.parksconservancy.org/visit/park-sites/muir-woods-national-monument.html
Virtual Tour: http://www.virtuar.com/marin/Muir/muir_woods_virtual_tour.htm
Biography of John Muir: http://vault.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/life/muir_biography.aspx

Parthenon:
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Parthenon.htm
http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/parthenon.html

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/architindex?entry=Athens,Parthenon
http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/The_Parthenon.html
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Unlocking-Mysteries-of-the-Parthenon.html
http://www.greece.org/parthenon/marbles/history1.htm
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/parthenon-lives.html
http://www.metacafe.com/watch/522405/the_parthenon/
Nashville Parthenon: https://www.google.com/search?q=parthenon+nashville&hl=en&rlz=1R2ADFA_enUS472&prmd=imvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=z_h6T_OVGYriggfLrv2ZAw&ved=0CEAQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=789

Parthenon Frieze:
Parthenon Frieze: http://www.parthenonfrieze.gr/#/?lang=en&w=1280 (be sure to click on English at bottom right)
Greek Ministry of Culture: http://www.ekt.gr/parthenonfrieze/index.jsp?lang=en&w=1280
Ancient Greek Cities: http://www.sikyon.com/athens/Parthenon/frieze01_eg.html

Columbia University: http://www.mcah.columbia.edu/parthenon/flash/main.htm

http://www.hammerwood.mistral.co.uk/elgin.htm
Here are some helpful reviews of books about the Parthenon and its frieze:
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2005/2005-11-10.html
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2000/2000-05-18.html
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2002/2002-06-14.html

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1997/97.04.29.html
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2003/2003-07-33.html

Olympia Sanctuary
http://www.greek-thesaurus.gr/Ancient-Olympia-the-sanctuary.html
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/o/olympia.html
http://www.olympia-greece.org/history.html
http://buffaloah.com/a/virtual/greece/olympia/sanc/index.html

Delphi:
Ancient Greek Cities:

http://ancient-greece.org/archaeology/delphi-archaeology.html
http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/delphi.html
http://www.travel-to-arachova.com/delphi.php
http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/delphi-temple-of-apollo.html
Siphnian Treasury: www.ancient-greece.org/museum/muse-delphi-siphnos.html
Ancient-Greece.org. Temple of Apollo. http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/delphi-temple-of-apollo.html
Grout, James. The Serpent Column at Delphi in Encyclopoedia Romana. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/circusmaximus/delphi.html
Serpent Column in Istanbul: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpent_Column
Hayes, Holly. Ancient Delphi in Sacred Destinations. http://www.sacred-destinations.com/greece/delphi.htm
Morden, Margaret E. Delphi, Oracle of Apollo.: http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/delphi/articledelphi.htm 
Sandels, V. E. K. Delphi in In2Greece.com http://www.in2greece.com/english/places/historical/mainland/delphi.htm
Siegel, Janice. Dr. Js Illustrated Delphi. http://people.hsc.edu/drjclassics/sites/delphi/delphi.sht
Witcombe, L. C. E. Sacred Places: Delphi, Greece http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/delphi.html
H
omeric Hymn to Apollo http://www.chs.harvard.edu/CHS/article/display/6294 
Sienkewicz, Thomas. Homeric Hymn to Apollo: An Analysis https://department.monm.edu/classics/Courses/CLAS230/MythDocuments/Apollo.HomericHymn.Analysis.htm
http://www.indiana.edu/~dmdhist/Pausaniasdelphi.htm (abridged)

Ritual Animal Sacrifice
Roman Sacrifice
http://www.aviewoncities.com/rome/arapacis.htm (Ara Pacis--Altar of Peace)
http://www.novaroma.org/nr/Guide_to_Sacrifice
http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/sacrifices_in_ancient_rome.htm
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Sacrificium.html
http://www.the-romans.co.uk/prayer.htm
http://www.romanarmy.net/sacrifices.shtml

http://people.opposingviews.com/religious-offerings-sacrifices-greek-gods-6368.html

Animal Sacrifice in World Religions:
http://www.mamiwata.com/animals.html
http://www.mamiwata.com/bible.html

Sacrifice in the Old Testment (Sacrifice of Abraham)
http://skepticsannotatedbible.com/contra/desire.html
http://www.rationalchristianity.net/abe_isaac.html

Islam
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eid_al-Adha
http://www.renaissance.com.pk/JanIslamiShari12y5.htm

Greece (ancient and modern)
http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/religion/blgrk_rituals08.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kourbania
http://orthodoxwiki.org/Kourbania

http://www.arch.uoa.gr/fileadmin/arch.uoa.gr/uploads/images/evy_johanne_haland/cosmos_24_haland.pdf

Hinduism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_sacrifice_in_Hinduism
http://people.opposingviews.com/hinduism-beliefs-sacrifice-4262.html
http://www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=5262
http://www.ted.com/conversations/9885/should_animal_sacrifice_contin.html

Animal Sacrifice in Other Cultures
http://altreligion.about.com/od/controversymisconception/f/animal_sacrifice.htm
http://santeriachurch.org/our-services/ritual-and-sacrifice/
http://pub47.bravenet.com/faq/show.php?usernum=3951612168&catid=105
http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=8,665,0,0,1,0

Mecca:
National Geographic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jM81wroj_MQ
Hajj Prep: Search Soul, Buy Sturdy Shoes, Pay the Dentist
Diaa Hadid, a Times correspondent, is getting ready for her first hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. And her family and colleagues have plenty of advice.Read More: http://nyti.ms/2cyISgm
ard Postcard From Mecca: http://nyti.ms/2cyJ7Iq
The Road to Makka
Journey to Mecca: In the Footsteps of Ibn Battuta is an IMAX dramatised documentary film charting the first real-life journey made by the Islamic scholar Ibn Battuta from his native Morocco to Mecca for the Hajj, in 1325.

Epidauros:
http://www.theoi.com/Ouranios/Asklepios.html
http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/epidaurus.html
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/491
http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/3/eh351.jsp?obj_id=2374
http://images.mitrasites.com/temple-of-asclepius-epidauros.html
http://classics.unc.edu/courses/clar244/4th-cClass.html

http://eb.tbicl.org/epidaurus/
http://www.altani.gr/english/sel1.htm


St. Peter's Basilica:
http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/

http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/tours.htm (on-line documents on St. Peters' Basilica)
St. Peter's Basilica - A Brief History by Fr. Carolan, OMI, English Guides to St. Peter's
St. Peter's - Guide to the Basilica and Square by Nicolo Suffi, ©Libreria Editrice Vaticana
Guide to Saint Peter's Basilica by Fr. Giovanni Giuliani OFM Conv ©1995 A.T.S. Italia- Roma
THE TOMB OF ST. PETER by Margherita Guarducci © 1960, Hawthorn Books

The Dome of the Rock:
The Noble Sanctuary http://www.noblesanctuary.com/
A well-done site from a Muslim perspective that doesn't deny the existence of the earlier Jewish temples. They are developing an interactive CD-Rom about the site.

Dome of the Rock http://www.sacredsites.com/1st30/domeof.html
(Personal Page, Martin Gray) Authored by an anthropologist/ photographer, this lengthy article is accompanied by some nice photos.

Dome of the Rock, Israel http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/domeofrock.html
(Sweet Briar College) Features three photos of the interior of the mosque. Text is limited and contains some biblical/historical errors.

Dome of the Rock http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Dome_of_the_Rock.html
 (Great Buildings Online) Examines the Dome of the Rock from an architectural point of view. Includes photos and a free downloadable 3D model.

http://www.bibleplaces.com/domeofrock.htm

El Aqsa Mosque

http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-al-aqsa-mosque

The Importance of Masjid al Aqsa to Muslims http://www.jannah.org/articles/aqsa.html
 (Personal Page) Part of an extensive website on Islam
http://www.jannah.org/articles/index.html
Article by a member of the Muslim Student Association, Brigham Young University.

Jerusalem: History Lessons (Aqsa) http://www.albalagh.net/food_for_thought/aqsa.shtml
 (Albalagh) Provides eye-opening insight into Muslim thought on their history, religion, and responsibility to Jihad.

Mosques Around The World http://islam.org/Culture/Mosques/Default.htm
(Islam.org) Photographs, mostly small, of Muslim places of worship around the world, including Mecca and Medina.

Todai-Ji:
http://www.orientalarchitecture.com/nara/todaijiindex.htm
http://www.taleofgenji.org/todaiji.html
http://www.yamasa.org/japan/english/destinations/nara/todaiji.html
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/japan/nara-todaiji.htm (includes satillete map)
http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/birushana.shtml (on the birushana)

Chartres:
http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/chartres_ext.html
http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/chartres.html
http://www.chartres-csm.org/us_fixe/cathedrale/
http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/index/index.html#france
http://www.ac-orleans-tours.fr/hist-geo3/chartres/cathedra.htm (in French)
ttp://www.johnjames.com.au/writings-byjohnjames.shtml
http://www.labyrinthsociety.org/
http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Chartres_Cathedral.html

Nauvoo:
http://www.nauvootemple.com/

http://users.marshall.edu/~brown/nauvoo/nt-parent.html
http://www.ldschurchtemples.com/nauvoo/
Conversation with a Church Leader
http://www.moroni10.com/LDS/temple_tour.html
https://www.lds.org/church/temples/nauvoo-illinois
https://www.lds.org/church/temples/why-we-build-temples?lang=eng
https://www.lds.org/church/temples/why-mormons-build-temples?lang=eng/

Also consult Sacred Places Bibliography

This material has been published on the web by Prof. Tom Sienkewicz for his students at Monmouth College. If you have any questions, you can contact him at tjsienkewicz@monmouthcollege.edu.

Back to the Top
Return to Monmouth College Department of Classics Homepage