Ramage  Chapter 8
Health, Death and the Afterlife


1.      What evidence from Pliny the Elder do the Ramages use to suggest that healthcare in the Roman empire was unsophisticated?

2.      Use the gravestone of the Athenian doctor Jason to described medical procedures in the Roman Empire.

3.      Describe the importance of bathing in ancient medical practice.

4.      What kinds of surgical instruments were found in Pompeii and Herculaneum> What do the range of these instruments suggest about Roman medical practice?

5.      Describe the different kinds of burial practices found in the Roman empire and some of the objects associated with these practives.

6.      How are grave monuments from Roman Palmyra particularly distinctive? Where is Palmyra?

7.      Where is the tomb of Caecilia Metella located? Why is it important? What does Lord Byron wonder about it?

8.      Describe some of the face masks Romans placed over corpses,

9.      Compare and contrast the cinerary urns of Bovia Procula (fig. 149) and Vernasia Cyclas (fig. 150).

10.  What do we learn about the deceased from the grave marker depicted in fig. 151.

11.  What is distinctive about the gravestone depicted in fig. 152? Where was it found? Who does it depict? What does the worksmanship tell us about its manufacture?

12.  What change in burial practices took place under the reign of the emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century A.D.?

13.  Compare and contrast the sarcophagi depicted in fig. 153, 155, 156.

14.  What is a lenos? How was this sarcophagus modified? Why do you think this change was made?

15.  What does the sarcophagus depicted in fig. 158 tell us about Roman burial practices?

16. Describe Egyptian burial practices during the Roman empire? How were they similar to and different from practices in other parts of the Roman Empire?