The Philosophy of Sport 

Mens sana in corpore sano (“a sound mind in a sound body”)


a medium of self- or life-fulfillment

excess strength and the root of creative living


an aesthetic phenomenon

ethical training

a model of an “achieving society”

a reaction compensating for and adjusting to the conditions of living in a world of industrial labor

a sign-world

a safety-value for aggression, instinctive reaction for the preservation of the race, and discharge through appetency

a mean in the class struggle, of increasing production and overcoming alienation

symbolized father-son conflict and substitute narcissistic satisfaction

For further development of these ideas, see Philosophies of Sport.