By Trevor Neff (MC, ’08)

 “[I] do respectfully request that all businesses, houses, and offices close between the hours of 2:30 and 5:30 o’clock” for baseball. With these words John S. Brown, mayor of Monmouth from 1907 to 1911 and then again from 1913 to 1915, kicked off the Central Association Baseball League’s season with that declaration. He was bold enough to make such a statement, loved enough to be agreed with, and respected enough to be followed.[1]

John S. Brown was born to John and Mattie Bennett (Pittenger) Brown on October 14, 1873.[2] On June 19, 1902, John S. Brown, 28, married Martha J. Phares, the daughter of William Henry and Marian (Heaton) Phares.[3] For most of his life, Brown lived at 620 E. Broadway (Ph 156) with a changing array of family members.[4] In 1900, his mother was the head of the household and his brother Harry, Aunt Elvira Pittenger, and two housekeepers lived in the home. Mattie died in 1903, fifteen years after his father, at her sister’s house in Indiana.[5] 1903 was also the year that John and Martha’s only child, Dorothy Martha Brown, was born, on March 30, in Monmouth. By 1910, John was the head of the household and his Aunt Elvira Pittenger lived with him. Two maids, Helena Clausen and Hulela Ericson, were in his employment during this period. Brown lived in the same house for a while in the 1920's, but his Aunt Elvira had been replaced by his sister-in-law, Marion Phares, and only one maid, Helena Clausen, worked for him.

Brown bought and moved to Brown Terrace on West Second Avenue in Monmouth where he lived with his wife in the 1930's. On June 19th, 1926, the 24th wedding Anniversary of John and Martha, their daughter Dorothy married Harry S. Lafferty in Monmouth. Harry and Dorothy lived in Brown Terrace for a time with their children Martha J., Harry S., and John B. The four other rooms in the building were rented out.[6]

An inheritance from his father helped him to become one of the leading capitalists of his day. He occupied “a prominent place in the financial and manufacturing circles of his native city.”[7] Brown owned large landed interests in Warren County and elsewhere, one of which was “a large orange ranch in Tulare County, California.”[8] Brown became a business success with the Monmouth Plow Company which:

...was organized in 1901 to manufacture a plow designed by W. T. M. Brunnemer, formerly of the Weir Plow Company, of Monmouth, and later with the Bradley Company of Kankakee. The company was licensed by the secretary of state December 14, 1901, with a capital stock of $100,000, and F. E. Harding, J. S. Brown and T. H. Spicer as commissioners. November 30 a temporary organization had been effected and directors elected, but the permanent organization did not occur until December 30, when directors were chosen as follows: W. T. M. Brunnemer, T. H. Spicer, R. Lahann, James French, J. S. Brown, William McKinley, J. D. Lynch, R. R. Murdock and John M. Torrance. The directors elected the following officers: President, J. S. Brown; vice president, James Frencn (sic); Secretary, T. H. Spicer; manager, W. T. M. Brunnemer. The site of the old Weir Plow factory was purchased January 2, 1902, and March 14 work commenced on the buildings. The main building is 300x80 feet, the east half being three stories high.[9]

Brown had many other interests; he was the director and president of Monmouth Hospital, helped organize the Warren County Red Cross during World War I and was its chairman from 1917 to 1938 (Brown resigned due to failing health), served on the directorate of the telephone company and the Monmouth Chamber of Commerce, and was the first president of the Monmouth Baseball Association in which he also managed the Monmouth Browns.[10] Brown did not fight in World War I, but he did serve in the military after joining the Illinois National Guard in April 1899 during the Spanish American War. He was a part of the Sixth Infantry in the guard, promoted to Second Lieutenant by September of 1899, and then moved up again to First Lieutenant in December of 1902. In 1905, Brown became the Battalion Adjutant of the First Battalion in the Sixth Infantry. Brown became the First Lieutenant of the Third Brigade in July 1908, Major Commissary on July 20, 1909, and Major Quartermaster in the Administrative Staff on July 24, 1916. This final position he held through 1927.[11]

Brown was active in politics early. He served as Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms at the 1900 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia. He was honored by Governor Yates with an appointment as one of the Commissioners of Illinois to the South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition, held at Charleston, S. C., December, 1901 to June, 1902. This, among his other experiences in businesses and local politics, helped him for his role in upcoming elections where he would be the leader of the Unionist Party.

On March 14th, 1907, the Unionists held a meeting where four candidates (W. A. Sawyer, T. P. Moore, C. A. Perley, and W. B. World) for the party’s mayoral nomination were voted on. No clear victor came from the votes, and the supporters of each candidate each had their own predictions for the outcome of the next vote, the most interesting being rumors about a “dark horse” being brought in by mixed members of each camp.[12] On Friday, March 22, the mystery candidate was revealed in the staggering triumph of John S. Brown who won 82 of 125 votes at the Unionist meeting, Sawyer coming in second with 20.[13] Brown wasn’t even in Monmouth at the time of his nomination, but he was in Chicago. He thanked those who, “gave him such a majority at their meeting last Friday night,” in an article published on the twenty-fifth, but, “he refused to state his attitude as regards his prospects for the mayoralty.”[14] Brown had said he would tell his friends within the next couple of days about his plans, but on the following day word had gotten out that he would accept the candidacy, while his top opponent, Sawyer, decided not to make a bid unless his party truly desired him to. The only person standing in the way of Brown now was the winner of the nomination for the Progressive ticket, and there were two men still vying for that position-the current mayor Randall P. Murdock, and David Turnbull.[15]

It wasn’t until Friday that Brown’s opponent was named, unanimously-Turnbull. At the Unionist meeting to make Brown the official candidate, Sawyer nominated him and full acceptance followed, but Brown was nowhere to be found, so a search party was sent out to find him. When he was finally brought to the meeting, Brown gave this speech:

Gentlemen of the convention, I heartily appreciate the honor conferred upon me. I have always lived in Monmouth and I have the interests of the city at heart and if elected will do all in my power to advance the interests of this city. I will give a square deal to all.[16]

With the Primaries over, everyone looked at what would separate Brown and Turnbull, but both turned out to have similar stances on the issues which led people to believe that “The campaign promises therefore to be one of personalities largely, with a strong battle over the propositions to license or not to license saloons.”[17] The Socialists entered the campaign after the twenty-eighth of March with Charles A. Harper as their candidate, but their chances and news coverage were slight.[18] Aside from a new opponent, things were looking good for Brown as the Republicans (the national party Brown was affiliated with) won township elections, and Brown himself was installed as trustee of the Elk Lodge as well as being appointed alternate representative to the Grand Lodge.[19] Brown and the Unionists continued to be active in their campaigning all the way to election day while an illness afflicted Turnbull, making him unable to campaign and forcing his supporters to act in his place.[20] The Progressives had been claiming that the election would go their way, and with both parties clouding the temperance issue, little separation could be seen between the candidates.[21] On April 17th, the votes were in, and John S. Brown won with 1,293 votes over Turnbull’s 861 and Harper’s 35.      

Brown’s first year as mayor was active, mainly tackling small issues, but his administration did improve the city and was put in some interesting situations. One of the first orders of business was to allow a company to build heating and electric light plants that would take care of the pipes the same company would lay in the “streets, alleys, avenues, and public grounds within the Corporate limits of the city of Monmouth, Il for the purpose of Hot Water or Steam to public or private consumers.”[22] Fire was feared during Brown’s first term, especially in early December of 1907 when defective wiring in a building on the McQuiston block caused a fire.[23] The new Hose Wagon granted to the fire department on August fifth was not enough to kill the blaze before the damage was done, but measures were taken to stop similar problems in the future.[24] On December third, the first reaction to the fire was seen when Brown and the council decided to appoint an inspector for the wiring around the city who would make sure the improvements to the current system, which a member of the national board of underwriters deemed unsafe the year before, were being done correctly.[25] On December 24, 1908, an ordinance was passed, broadening the fire limits and forcing all new buildings to be built fire proof.[26]

A nastier problem occurred on October 7, 1907, when a sewer backed up in Monmouth.[27] Continuing problems on this issue persisted causing Brown to request power to act directly, along with the city attorney.[28] Power was granted, and by the next meeting, progress was reported.[29] As soon as the sewage was disappearing, the question of reinstating the curfew arose again, and those for as well as against had solid arguments for their side.[30] The reason for reinstating the curfew was to get Monmouth’s youth off the streets at night, but the whistle blown for curfew was located near many residents and the Monmouth hospital. The doctors claimed it aggravated the patients, and the residents of the area claimed it aggravated them. A compromise was proposed in not having the water works whistle blow and instead having one of the factories sound the alarm.[31] This issue seemed to disappear with no resolve until July 12, 1908, when the Women’s Federation brought it back to discussion; the final decision was to not blow the whistle, but to enforce the law.[32]

Brown’s desire to improve the streets and sidewalks was apparent, especially on July 10, 1908, when the city administration tried to improve First Avenue, North A Street, Third Street, Fourth Street, and Sixth Street with new concrete pavement, but the residents of the area wanted none of it as they believed the concrete pavement was too expensive and didn’t fit in with the current style.[33] The Board of Improvements did have the authority to force the citizens into taking the concrete pavement, but they decided instead to put in the old style of brick and stone gutters while making it clear they believed the concrete was still the better choice.[34] A month and a half later, Miss Alice Robinson entered a council meeting with her own questions about the pavements of Monmouth, except this time it concerned a sidewalk. “The presence of femininity rather disconcerted the alderman right from the start,” and Miss Robinson used that to get the sidewalk on her property changed so it wouldn’t cause water to leak into her cellar. Her case took up the time normally used to discuss the topics of each committee, and a special meeting was planned to hold that discussion at a later date.[35]

At the end of the year, Brown faced the usual problem money shortage, but the new school being proposed also caused the taxes in Monmouth to rise.[36] The increase in taxes only appeared great due to the year of 1908 being low, but with an election coming up, a tax hike could cause problems for reelection. Two important business decisions needed to be made, the simpler being that of franchising the Rock Island Southern Interurban Company in Monmouth. After the R. I. S. was granted its forty year franchise, the focus fell on the franchising of the Monmouth Telephone Company.[37] The bill for the franchise of the Monmouth Telephone Company had been turned down the previous year, but the requests made by that council had been met in the new bill.[38] The bill passed, but Mayor Brown vetoed it saying there was “nothing in the ordinance to insure the future maintenance of efficient service, and no consideration for the people.”[39] After redrawing the bill with new stipulations, the Monmouth Telephone Company was granted its franchise.[40]

The 1909 election contrasted greatly from 1907's. Instead of the giant stir caused by the previous election, 1909 was quiet, conserved, and calm. Brown was set to face the Progressive W. D. Brereton, and once again everyone believed it would be a close race. Brown and Brereton were in the spotlight as both of their parties focused largely on their campaigns, “The candidates for that [aldermanic] position in all the wards turning their attention to the head of the ticket and trying to help their leaders all they can, even at the risk of losing their own race.”[41] The race began to heat up on the 15th, with only three more working days to campaign, as the Progressives began to visit factories while the Unionists held a “rousing” meeting at “the old fire station at Commercial Row.”[42] By the 17th, there was still no clear margin separating the two, the alderman were expected to be picked by the way the mayoral vote went, and even though “The campaign all through has been a quiet one, and it promises to close just as quietly as it started,” workers were active behind the scenes to rally their areas.[43] Both sides were ready the day before the election as the Unionists felt they had covered their territory and the Progressives continued to hold rallies, and even the Chicago Tribune wrote about the election:

Another city where there has been all sorts of maneuvering is Monmouth. Mayor John S. Brown is opposed for reelection by W. D. Brereton, president of the Western Stoneware Company. The campaign has been made sufficiently warm to stir up all that part of Western Illinois.[44]

A large vote was seen on the day of the election, and it looked grim for the Unionists when their meeting “was not nearly as large as the Progressive meeting, and there is said to have been a considerable lack of confidence.”[45] The headline on the 21st read “Union Won out in Hard Fight,” and while the margin of victory was only 119 votes this time, John S. Brown, who hadn’t made any promises which allowed him to govern freely, was still the Mayor of Monmouth. The news was followed by a celebration with “a liberal supply of giant and small firecrackers” that were set off before a band led a parade through the streets. It was reported that “For two hours or more the celebration was continued, then the tired celebrators disbanded after one of the biggest demonstrations ever held in the city following a city election.”[46]

The first report of Brown’s new term showed that improvements had been made all over the city, and the council still kept Monmouth out of debt. The council had money, and more came in after 18 saloon licenses, 3 wholesale licenses, and 1 billiard license were handed out.[47] With $82,746.64 in the council’s account, the focus turned to meeting the demands of the public who desired more improvements in the lighting, water system, and sidewalks. The mission of the council was to “remodel the [water] plant and extend the mains to more distant parts of the city, and action was taken as power was granted to the water committee to purchase one hundred tons of pipe since the cost is cheap.” Brown also abolished the courthouse policeman position, saying “the money which has been spent for this could be turned to some other branch of the department and do more good.” [48]

On July 19th, 1909, a discussion started over the improvements of “First Avenue from First Street to Eighth; Third Street between First and Second Avenue; Fourth Street from Broadway to Second; Sixth Street from Broadway to Second, and North A Street between Archer and Euclid Avenues.” The improvements were to cost over $50,000, and a similar attempt had been rejected in years prior due to a lack of public support, but “Since then, the mayor explained in asking that the ordinance be passed, there have been some changes in sentiment and some who were against the improvement before are now heartily in favor it.” [49]

However, by August 2nd, sentiment seemed to change as numerous residents who had signed the petition for the improvements requested their names be removed, and a few aldermen were now against the improvements. Brown responded to this with “This administration has been condemned for not paving…and now it is being condemned for trying to pave the streets.” Brown then declared petitions for or against would not be considered on this issue, and that no matter what, the old style of paving would not be used in Monmouth.[50] On the 31st of August, the paving plan was rejected, mainly due to a group of residents who showed up at the council meeting. They plead for the improvements to be rejected because they would lose their homes if the ordinances went through. After this, Brown’s desire to improve the city streets was crushed and few expected any more plans to be made on this issue.[51]

A separate issue that would become more important as Brown’s second term went on was that of the saloons. John Stoyles, proprietor of Cacino Buffet, was caught selling liquor on election day, which was against the law. Also, large signs were blocking his front windows and a side door, which was against the law. The matter was brought before the council, with Stoyles’ lawyer speaking for him. The defense claimed the charges were false, and after a vote of license revocation was rejected, it was decided that Mayor Brown would be given power to act as he saw fit on the matter.[52] After looking at all the evidence, Brown decided to suspend Stoyles’ license for three days, which marked the first time in Monmouth history that a saloon’s license was suspended.[53] Further suspensions would be given for similar infractions on the part of the saloons in the coming months, and every time the council supported the mayor’s actions unanimously.

Brown’s administration soon saw that the enforcement of other ordinances in Monmouth was required. Complaints were made about people burning trash and dumping refuse behind the library; the mayor decided that the guilty parties should be warned that the Fire chief, fire commission, and board of health were told take actions to make the burners stop. Posters being put up around the town had also become a problem as it created more trash and frightened horses. The chief of police was told to enforce the ordinance against this. Coal haulers were said to stop at the fountain and wet down their loads of coal, causing the paving by the fountain to “cave in and be generally messed up.” A fine of $5 to $15 dollars was to be given to anyone who used the fountain on the corner of Third Street and Fifth Avenue for anything other than drinking or watering stock.[54]

The topic of October was replacement lights and all night service; action wasn’t taken until November 15th when a contract allowing the Monmouth Public Service Company was to take over the lighting system until May 1910. The company wanted to replace the lights with newer models, but they were not given the proposed ten-year contract and could not put up the new lights until the council was able to see them in action and vote on them.[55]

Problems were rising all over Monmouth that winter, mainly due to new companies handling the city services, but Brown kept calm, saying that while mistakes are expected, the city was being as lenient as it could be. If the companies did not get their acts together, changes would be made.[56] One company that was becoming a major problem was Iowa Central. Water from one of their tanks was overflowing into a citizen’s yard, and the flagman at the Main Street crossing was found absent from time to time as he did not have a shed to shield him from the cold.[57] It was found that the sewage problems occurring in the past years had stemmed from Iowa Central. Apparently, they had been dumping refuse into the sewers which caused them to back up, and the council decided to put in a screen that would block the refuse, causing a back up in Iowa Central’s pipes so that only the company had to deal with it.[58] After the screen was put in place, Iowa Central’s pipes clogged up and they threatened to tear down the screen. Brown responded by saying that if the screen was torn down, the police will be called and those responsible will be arrested.[59] Iowa Central decided to put in a catch basin for its refuse, and the council decided to charge the company for the city cleaners hired to fix the problem.[60]

On February 21, 1910, a revivalist speaker, Dr. Biederwolf, came to Monmouth to support a temperance movement.[61] He was successful, and after a vote in early April, Monmouth went dry.[62] At the council meeting on May 16, 1910, two ordinances were passed. The first one was for off-color “soft drink” sales which, if the vendor was declared guilty by the chief of police, the shop would be closed and further action would be taken accordingly. The other was for “prohibiting the sale of spirituous, vinous, or malt liquors in any quantity whatsoever, the penalty being fixed at a minimum of $25 and a maximum of $200. It also fixed the license of a druggist who wishes to handle the liquors for medicinal purposes at $50…” Druggists would also be required to keep a sales record that was open to inspection at any time.[63] Brown vetoed both ordinances because:

…he was not averse to having an ordinance or ordinances passed which would tend to make the city good and dry since that was the will of the people; he said he wanted to be perfectly fair to all classes and conditions and that he thought the present bills were too broad and comprehensive. He wanted to give everybody a square deal and asked that the council consider his veto in that light.”[64]

The first ordinance was “too broad, outlawing legitimate business, as it might be constituted to cut off the sale of ginger ale, root beer, and grape juice…” The second ordinance was also too broad and took away the rights of citizens in their own homes, “The intent is all right, but it must be construed to prevent entirely the use of liquors, prevents the sale on prescription and repeals all ordinances now in effect regarding the sale of liquor necessitating others in case the township should go ‘wet’ at some future election.” Brown’s final words on the matter were “…it was unfair to outside physicians and took power away from the council in cases of license returning and made it so the alderman could refuse to grant licenses even though the people voted wet.”[65] The ordinances were still passed.

After August 1, 1910, Monmouth was set to get all-night lights, but a debt of $25,627.50 was casting a shadow over the council. In 1900, bonds were issued for $20,000 with a 6% interest rate. A Supreme Court case almost declared the bonds unconstitutional, but in the end the bonds were seen fit and issued. $3,000 was paid back to the Chicago firm that bought the bonds, but then the rest of the debt was ignored. The firm sent an attorney, which caused the council to hold an election for the people to vote on what action should be taken.[66] The people voted to pay off the old bonds, and the new bonds issued for the debt were expected to have closer attention paid to them.[67]

There were other improvements Brown’s administration saw through during this term. One involved the stray dogs running around the town. A $1.00 dog tax was issued, with tags being required to be worn by all dogs in the city, and a dog catcher employed on August 1, 1910.[68] The water supply in the town was doubled after an old well across from the Water Works was put back into use with a new pump. The new boiler put in during the summer helped out on this matter.[69] By January of 1911, Brown felt that his days in local politics were over, and he decided not to run for another term.[70] His successor was Joseph Moore of the Unionist Party.[71]

The 1913 election was a quiet one; the Daily Review wrote “Unless there is something to stir them up between now and Tuesday many of the voters will fail to recall that there is a duty laid upon them.”[72] However, the election that brought John S. Brown back into Monmouth politics was one the public found interesting as the voter turnout proved. The headline on the 16th of April read “UNION WINS IN LANDSLIDE VOTE.” Brown beat his closest competitor, Fred N. Wildermuth of the Progressive party, by over four hundred votes. A vote for a new courthouse was also held during this election and was passed.[73]

As he had done in the past, Brown promised nothing during his campaign so he could do as he wished during his term. He had the opportunity to appoint new officials, and it was speculated that the police force he would put together would act more aggressively than past squads.[74] George W. Morrison, a veteran of the Monmouth police, was the man Brown appointed chief of police, and the two worked together to create a patrol system for the city that would be more efficient than the old routes, protect the city better, and not require additional officers.[75]

Brown and his administration targeted two projects early. They raised the cemetery fund for general improvements and a proposed expansion; they also put money into a fund for a needed reservoir at the water works.[76] Both of these projects would progress slowly, but not as slow as the new City Hall issue, which had very little work done on it by the end of Brown’s term. Other issues took the administration’s interest.

One such issue was that of automobiles, which were increasing in popularity. The laws passed by Brown’s administration from previous years needed to be updated as the state laws had been, which the council quickly did. With the updates, they had more power to regulate traffic, but it wasn’t until October 6th that a law was put firmly in the books that allowed the police to catch violators of the state law.[77] At the beginning of December, the council passed this ordinance:

Penalty of not less than $100 and not more than $200 for any person who, while in an intoxicated condition, shall operate, conduct, manage, control, or have charge of any grip car, automobile, motor car, or other vehicle propelled to mechanical power, upon any street or ways in the city, while such vehicle is in motion or while the machinery or any part there of is in motion.[78]

Concealed firearms were an issue early in January, and the council decided to take action by changing the $25 fine maximum to the minimum penalty. Problems with the electricity in the city created a discussion during the council meeting on February 17, 1914, about what solutions were feasible. They decided that a city electrician was needed; the man would need to be competent under the rules of the National Electric Code and he would be given a bond of $500 for his duties.[79]

Prohibition was the big issue in May of 1914, and a liquor ordinance was passed that was harsher than the one Brown had dealt with during 1910, making it: 

…unlawful for anyone within the corporate limits of the city to sell, keep for sale, barter, or anyway dispose of, or take an order for intoxicating liquor of any kind, a fine of $25 to $200 to be imposed for violation of the provision. 

A similar fine was put in place for a club room or other distributor of liquor, proprietors of places where liquor was dispense would be fined $50 to $200, and those who congregate to drink could be fined $5 to $100. The display of liquor signs and advertisements was punishable by a $20 to $200 fine.[80] Brown vetoed the ordinance, declaring it too broad and more problematic than the liquor law from the past, but unlike the past law, the council did not overturn his veto and the motion was lost.[81]

The traffic problems still weren’t solved by the summer of 1914, so the council decided more action was necessary. First, they bought a motorcycle for the police department to patrol on. Then they stiffened the speed limits in and around the city. Ten miles an hour was the limit in the business district, fifteen in the residential district, twenty in the area closely outside the business and residential districts, and twenty-five in the country.[82] At the same meeting where these changes were made, the council attempted to fix the water shortage. They raised the rates of water for people in the city, but not enough to cause much concern among the townspeople. They also gave power to the water committee to shut off the water of people who wouldn’t pay the necessary taxes.[83] In October, a new pump called the Harris-Ryan-Ingersoll air pump was installed and found to be an improvement, working even better than expected. The council decided that more pumps should be put in place if possible.[84]

The early months of 1915 saw little action from Brown’s administration aside from following through on improvements already put in place. The pumps at the water works were great improvements, the streets and sidewalks were nicer, and railroads were made safer with the placement of flagmen and ordinances about the distance cars should be from tracks.[85] Attention quickly turned to the upcoming election which was more heated than Brown’s others. Advertisements filled the paper and rumors were heard in the streets. Brown reminded the public of all the ways his administration had improved Monmouth, and all the charity they had given. The Daily Review wrote these two examples of rumors, “If John Brown is re-elected you may expect a wide-open town. Gambling, illicit liquor selling, and other vices characteristic of a loosely governed municipality will flourish freely,” and “The election of Fowler will mean the inauguration of a ‘blue-stocking’ regime that may result in the closing even of the restaurants on Sunday, and the town will become as dead as a doornail.”[86] In the end, Fowler won, and the Progressives took over the city with him.[87]

This was not the end of Brown’s political career. In November of 1924, he was elected to the State Senate for the thirty-second district. He was the chairman of the committee on military affairs and a member of twelve other committees ranging from appropriations, banks and building and loan associations, corporations and industrial affairs, municipalities, public utilities, revenue and finance, state university and normal schools. In his spare time, Brown traveled the U.S., Mexico, West Indies, Alaska, and continental Europe.[88]

On the 25th Anniversary celebration of the Monmouth Rotary Club, John S. Brown died of heart failure. He had “failing health for several years but had been critically ill...” only a couple of days. He began his career as a bookkeeper at the Second National Bank of Monmouth, became a leader in business and city politics, gave his time and money to numerous philanthropic deeds, and still found time for his family. At the Rotary Club celebration, three roses and a card bearing the name of John S. Brown were placed at the head of the table, a place where John S. Brown managed to climb to in every endeavor he began.[89]

This biography was written in the fall of 2006 in William Urban's historiography class at Monmouth College.

[1]Daily Review, May 9, 1910.

[2]Historical and Biographical Record of Monmouth (Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company, 1927), 354.

[3]Marriage Directory (Monmouth: Monmouth Public Library, 2006).

[4], 1910 U.S. Census.

[5]Historical and Biographical Record of Monmouth, 354

[6], 1930 U.S. Census.

[7]Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois (Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company, 1903), 817.

[8]Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, 818.

[9]Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, 782.

[10]Historical and Biographical Record of Monmouth, 58.

[11]Historical and Biographical Record of Monmouth, 58.

[12]Daily Review, March 15, 1907.

[13]Daily Review, March 23, 1907.

[14]Daily Review, March 25, 1907.

[15]Daily Review, March 26, 1907.

[16]Daily Review, March 29, 1907. The term “square deal” was used and popularized by Theodore Roosevelt.

[17]Daily Review, April 1, 1907.

[18]Daily Review, April 2, 1907.

[19]Daily Review, April 3 and 4, 1907.

[20]Daily Review, April 5, 1907.

[21]Daily Review, April 5 and 10, 1907.

[22]City Council Minutes, (Monmouth: Monmouth City Hall), April, 17 and May 20, 1907, pg. 372

[23]City Council Minutes, Dec. 3, 1907.

[24]City Council Minutes, Aug. 5, 1907.

[25]City Council Minutes, Dec. 3, 1907.

[26]City Council Minutes, Dec. 24, 1908.

[27]City Council Minutes, Oct. 7, 1907.

[28]City Council Minutes, Nov. 18, 1907.

[29]City Council Minutes, Dec. 2, 1907

[30]City Council Minutes, Nov. 18, 1907

[31]Daily Review, Dec. 3, 1907. The Daily Review was found to be as accurate as the City Council Minutes.

[32]Daily Review, July 21, 1908.

[33]Daily Review, July 10 and 11, 1908.

[34]Daily Review, July 15, 1908.

[35]Daily Review, Sept. 9, 1908.

[36]Daily Review, Dec. 1 and 24, 1908.

[37]Daily Review, Feb. 16, 1909. The R. I. S. was not allowed to put tracks in the Square closer than 85 feet of the plat with provisions being made for a “Y” at the north, south, and east sides. It could erect and maintain a power station within the city and sell electricity for commercial purposes, but if the R. I. S. didn’t do this, other companies could and use the R. I. S. trackage. Rates couldn’t be over 5 cents, transfers are to be given if necessary to complete the journey, the city cars are to be run at least every 15 minutes, the franchise must be accepted within thirty days and the cars must be running in 2 years.

[38]Daily Review, Jan. 5, 1909.

[39]Daily Review, Jan. 19, 1909.

[40]Daily Review, Feb. 16, 1909. The franchise allowed the company to act on many internal improvements it had been waiting for. However, the bill stated that the city would get 16 free phones and 24 if the Bell Company was absorbed. The city also got the first four places on each telephone pole for its police and fire alarm wires. All wires were to be enclosed in cables except for those necessary for business houses within the confines of Archer, Second Street, Second Avenue, and A Street. The company was also not given an exclusive franchise.

[41]Daily Review, April 14, 1909.

[42]Daily Review, April 15, 1909.

[43]Daily Review, April 17, 1909.

[44]Daily Review, April 19, 1909.

[45]Daily Review, April 20, 1909.

[46]Daily Review, April 21, 1909.

[47] Daily Review, May 4, 1909.

[48] Daily Review, May 18, 1909.

[49] Daily Review, July 20, 1909.

[50] Daily Review, August 3, 1909.

[51] Daily Review, August 31, 1909.

[52] Daily Review, August 3, 1909.

[53] Daily Review, August 5, 1909.

[54] Daily Review, October 5, 1909.

[55] Daily Review, November 16, 1909.

[56] Daily Review, December 7, 1909.

[57] Daily Review, December 7, 1909.

[58] Daily Review, December 21, 1909.

[59] Daily Review, February 8, 1910.

[60] Daily Review, February 22, 1910.

[61] Daily Review, February 22, 1910.

[62] Daily Review, April 6, 1910.

[63] Daily Review, May 17, 1910. The first speed limits were put into law in Monmouth at the meeting on the 16th of May as well. Following state law, 10mph was set for downtown and 15mph was set for residence districts.

[64] Daily Review, June 7, 1910.

[65] Daily Review, June 7, 1910.

[66] Daily Review, July 19, 1910.

[67] Daily Review, August 10, 1910.

[68] Daily Review, August 2, 1910.

[69] Daily Review, December 20, 1910.

[70] Daily Review, January 25, 1911.

[71] Daily Review, April 19, 1911.

[72] Daily Review, April 12, 1913.

[73] Daily Review, April 16, 1913.

[74] Daily Review, April 17, 1913.

[75] Daily Review, June 3, 1913.

[76] Daily Review, May 20, 1913.

[77] Daily Review, October 7, 1913.

[78] Daily Review, December 2, 1913.

[79] Daily Review, March 17, 1914.

[80] Daily Review, May 19, 1914.

[81] Daily Review, June 2, 1914.

[82] Daily Review, June 16, 1914.

[83] Daily Review, June 16, 1914. It was believed that $800 to $1000 could be collected from people who hadn’t paid their bills.

[84] Daily Review, October 6, 1914.

[85] Daily Review, January 5, 1915. One ordinance made the legal distance a car has to stop in front of a crossing ten feet and no more than thirty feet from.

[86] Daily Review, April 15, 1915.

[87] Daily Review, April 21, 1915.

[88] Monmouth Review Atlas, June 14, 1943.

[89] Monmouth Review Atlas, June 15, 1943.