last updated 9/8/2008
GENERAL TYPES OF WARRANTS (REASONING)
Authority: "There is good reason (person, text) to believe that the source of the claim/grounds should be believed."
Example/induction/generalization: "This particular case(s) (in the grounds) is representative of a large group of similar cases or of a `principle'."
Deduction: "The general principle specified in the grounds applies to the specific instance in the claim."
Sign: "Those conditions specified in the grounds are 'signs' (are associated regularly with) the claim."
Comparision/Analogy: " The two instances described in the argument are similar in all important ways, thus what is true for one must be true for the other."
Cause: "The conditions specified in the grounds are sufficient to produce the effect claimed. [This can work negatively too.]
Definition/classification: "By definition we call what is specified in the grounds by the name given in the claim." "Gr. is a member of the class indicated in the claim." [This can work negatively too.]
Value: "The circumstances represented in the grounds are reflective of good/bad or right/wrong as indicated in the conclusion."
Example: ACheating is wrong!@
Policy: "The 'reasons' presented in the grounds are sufficient to prove that the action described in the claim should be taken."
Residues: The grounds eliminate or prohibit all possibilities except one.
Dilemma: Either - or choices.
Consistency expectation warrant: