forearmed? (AP 38)
though ads are obvious persuasion efforts and people say they are not much
effected -- the fact is they seem to work
under 8 have little resistance (weak on counter-arguments -- but the soon
become cynics (88% don't trust ads by age 12)
work among the more sophisticated because of peripheral route issues -
"heavily advertised goods must sell a lot and be good"
often only makes subjects wish to appear unpersuaded.
often appears to help immediately after message but then the FW effect wears
off in a week or so.
doesn't provide a defense if subjects see the message issue as unimportant.
does work if the subjects are willing to think about rebutting the message
esp. if the audience is "inoculated" and given practice in rebuttal.
works best when "cultural truisms" are attacked (because we seldom
consider why we believe these things and so don't have ready counter-arguments.)
Propaganda! (AP 39)
Recognize you too can be a victim of
illegitimate persuasion (“gotcha”)
Monitor your emotions when receiving
Focus on the motivation and credibility of
Take pride in being rational. Mindless receivers are dupes.
Consider your full range of options, not
just what the persuader offers
Judge agents/rhetors by outcomes not promises
Be aware of the prevalence of “Factoids.”
Beware of the bandwagon. Repetition and popularity are not proxies
If is seems too good to be true, it
Always think about counter arguments.
Use multiple sources for information (and
remember, the mainstream press may be a single source)
Recognize the essentials of democratic
. Use them. Help preserve them.
communication systems – multiple sources
is constrained by checks and balances
. Beware of "unchecked"
communicators who control all the messages/evidence.
and agenda are set by discussion not leader fiat
of influence between citizens and leaders
social structures and roles
opinion is encouraged
to data/evidence -
What's wrong with the
"proof" a persuader may be offering?
of proportion (no baseline)