last updated 9/9/2006
the "Human Relations School"
Elton Mayo and his team concluded:
(summary of key issues)
(see OC pp. 36-38
friendly warm relations with supervisors who listen
(First finding that upward communication is important to
satisfaction) and are supportive and
with peers increase productivity
worker satisfaction with relationships with peers influences productivity and conformity to norms
(social pressures can improve output).
supervisors need to understand workers actions in terms of "meanings" workers ascribe to
the work environment
(Numbers 1 and 2 above aren't well supported by research,
but they were widely believed)
Bernard was an early
HR theorist who wrote FUNCTIONS OF THE EXECUTIVE.
Those functions include:
A. Create and maintain effective communication system
B. Stimulate activity
C. Define goals
- members of organizations are complex, thinking beings.
- decisions are influenced by a complex of personal feelings, interpersonal relations and social pressures,
(thus, informal organization and cooperation [ vs obedience to orders) become
- making good communication processes necessary.
The "zone of indifference" anticipates cultural approaches
to organizational communication.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
(see OC pp. 38-40
(an important psychological underpinning of HR)