Organizational Communication

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last updated 9/13/2013

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
Some elements of the work environment can increase motivation; others can damage motivation. 
Few, if any, factors can do both.

  1. Hygiene (These factors are "dissatisfiers."  They can damage morale and motivation but once employees find these elements satisfactory that do not work well to increase motivation and productivity.)
    1. High levels of supervision
    2. Poor interpersonal relations with peers
    3. Unpleasant working conditions
    4. Inflexible or unsupportive company policies
    5. Inadequate or unfair pay
  2. Motivators (These factors are "satisfiers."  Their absence does not necessarily damage morale and motivation but if employees find these elements have imporved in their workplace, they tend to increase motivation and productivity.)
    1. Enjoyable, meaningful tasks
    2. Feelings of achievement
    3. Having opportunities for promotion
    4. Recognition of achievements
    5. Gaining more rresponsibility (and control over your work)

McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y 
(see OC pp. 42-44
Theory X Managers believe:    [ a classical model approach ]

  1. Humans dislike work and avoid it where possible.

  2. Thus, most people must be ordered, coerced controlled and threatened to get them to do necessary work.

  3. The average person prefers to be directed and wishes to avoid responsibility and seeks security above all.

Theory Y Managers believe:   [ an HR model approach ]

  1. Work is natural and satisfying for most people.

  2. External control is not always necessary.  People can be self-directed

  3. Organizational goals can be linked to Maslow's higher order needs producing commitment to organizational needs.

  4. The average person can learn to seek responsibility.

  5. Most humans have a substantially greater ability to use judgment, imagination creativity, etc.

  6. Development of these abilities is typically under-supported in most organizations.